1 The dates indicated are the earliest dates when countries have signed the agreements or have submitted their ratifications or accessions – whether in Washington, London, Moscow or New York. In the case of a territory that was a dependent territory that became part of the succession, the date indicated is the date on which the country has indicated that it will remain bound by the terms of the agreement. Recognizing humanity`s common interest in progress in the exploration and use of space for peaceful purposes, the 59th session of the Committee on Peaceful Uses of Space was held in Vienna on 8-17 June, attended by 70 States. The Committee reaffirmed its objective of preserving space for peaceful purposes. The Committee also agreed on a first set of guidelines for the long-term stability of space activities and set out seven priorities for UNISPACE-50. Other provisions of the Treaty stress that space is not one country and that all countries have the right to explore it. These provisions provide that, after the treaty came into force, the United States and the Soviet Union cooperated in planned and manned space enterprises. NASA is implementing the Artemis agreements as a series of bilateral agreements between the United States and other countries that Bridenstine says allow them to move faster than if NASA were seeking a multilateral agreement under the aegis of the United Nations. “If we went to an international body and brought them together and they brought all the nations of the world forward, it would take a long, long time,” he said. “We have a mandate to move quickly and engage international and commercial partners at the same time.” The seven countries that today sign the Artemis agreements are only the first to go through the negotiation process with the United States. Some of them, including Australia, Italy and Japan, have already signed agreements with NASA on cooperation on Artemis, while Canada has already announced its intention to contribute to NASA`s lunar gate. The nature of this possibility of observation and the conditions under which it could be granted are determined by mutual agreement between the States concerned. Space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, must be freely accessible to all states, without discrimination of any kind, on the basis of equality and in accordance with international law, and have free access to all parts of celestial bodies.
On 28 June, the United Nations Office for Space Affairs and the Sierra Nevada Corporation signed a Memorandum of Understanding that allows UN member states to conduct space experiments. The 10th UN Workshop on Space Law was held in Vienna from 5 to 8 September. Recommendations were made on ways to improve the security and viability of space activities, build capacity in space law for developing countries, and cross-border cybersecurity and space law. On 12 April, the Democratic People`s Republic of Korea failed to launch a satellite commemorating the centenary of the late Kim Il Sung and in accordance with the Peaceful Exploration Clause of the Outeer Space Treaty. The Kwangmyongsong-3 missile entered about 20 pieces that landed in the sea west of Seoul. The DPRK said the rocket was intended to launch a satellite into space, but Western nations are not convinced of their true purpose because of past nuclear work. The launch broke for the second time two UN Security Council resolutions (1718, 1874) calling on the DPRK to halt all missile launches and activities related to its ballistic missile program. The exploration and use of space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, is carried out for the benefit and benefit of all countries, regardless of their degree of economic or scientific development, and is the province of all humanity.